The Senegalese maritime zone is characterised by a great biological diversity. The exploited resources comprise four groups with different bio-ecological characteristics and socio-economic importance: offshore pelagics (tuna, swordfish, marlin, etc.), coastal pelagics (mackerel, sardinella, etc.), deep-water demersal species (shrimp, hake, etc.) and coastal demersal species (crustaceans, mullet, sole, octopus, etc.).
As far as aquaculture is concerned, it is one of the pillars of the Emerging Senegal Plan (PSE), which aims to make Senegal an emerging country based on sustained and sustainable growth. Senegal benefits from six (06) eco-geographical zones favourable to aquaculture and offering important possibilities, with fresh and marine waters free of pollution and quality soils.
The fall in fish production in Senegal has favoured the introduction of species from aquaculture (tilapia, catfish, etc.) The existence of a local and export market is confirmed by the high demographic growth worldwide and especially in Africa, hence the increased consumption needs for fish products.
The existence of a local and export market is confirmed by the high world and especially African population growth, hence the increased consumption needs for fishery products.
Also, the beneficial effects on health have been highlighted with the presence of Omega 3 acids producing protective effects on the cardiovascular level.
Senegal has a maritime area of approximately 198,000 km2 with a large continental shelf of 23,800 km2. The Senegalese coasts are ranked among the most productive in the world. During the season (November to May) and under the influence of the trade winds, the maritime domain experiences an upwelling of cold waters, rich in nutritive salts, which favours the development of an abundant and diversified flora and fauna.
STRATEGIC POSITIONING OF SENEGAL
In addition to the advantages of its geographical position, due to its openness to the international and interregional space, Senegal has enormous potential in the field of the development and marketing of fishery products.
In addition, there is a large demand for processed products that meet the standards of the European, American and even Asian markets.
As regards to aquaculture production, with the scarcity of fish products in several West African countries, its development depends on several parameters, notably :
- a drastic fall in fish catches, which has encouraged the introduction of species such as Nile tilapia, abalone and catfish into Senegal;
- Favourable water temperatures in Senegal allowing, for example, tilapia to reach a marketable size more quickly than in other producing countries, with the possibility of two harvests per year;
- breeding and reproduction conditions in Senegal likely to make Nile tilapia production very competitive
- the potential for tilapia aquaculture production in Saint-Louis (particularly in the flood valleys) and on the Petite Côte, in an intensive closed circuit farming system
The potential for tiger shrimp aquaculture production in the Sine-Saloum and Casamance regions, either in semi-intensive or intensive mode.