PORTRAIT OF THE SECTOR
The Senegalese maritime zone is characterized by a great biological diversity . The exploited resources comprise four groups with bioecological characteristics and the socio-economic importance are different : offshore pelagic species (tunas, swordfish, marlins, etc.), coastal pelagics (mackerel, sardinella, etc.) deep demersal species (shrimp , hake, etc.) and coastal demersal species ( crustaceans , mullet, sole, octopus, etc.)
With regard to aquaculture, it is one of the pillars of the Emerging Senegal Plan (PSE), which aims to make Senegal an emerging country based on sustained and sustainable growth. The Senegal has six (06) zones eco-geographic conducive to aquaculture and providing opportunities significant, with freshwater and marine free from pollution and soil quality .
The fall in fish production in Senegal favored the introduction of species from aquaculture (tilapia, catfish etc.). The existence of a running local and export growth is confirmed by demographic World African and especially high , with or consumption increased need for fish products.
The existence of a running local and export growth is confirmed by the population worldwide and especially African high , with or consumption increased need for fish products.
In addition, the beneficial effects on health have been highlighted with the presence of Omega 3 acids producing protective effects on the cardiovascular level.
The Senegal has a maritime area of about 198 000 km2 with a wide plateau continental 23,800 km2. The Senegalese coast is ranked among the most productive in the world, by season (November to May) and under the e and trade winds , the maritime domain isexperiencing a rise of cold waters, rich in nutrients and which promote the development of abundant and diverse flora and fauna .
The following ecological factors are the most predominant :
- Existence of six (06) zones eco-geographic conducive to the fishing and maritime aquaculture and providing opportunities important
- Availability of sufficient water resources with ideal characteristics for aquaculture production allowing large- scale yields :
- 718 km of coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and mouths of rivers
- The Senegal River 1700km long
- The Gambia River (750 km)
- The Casamance River (300km)
- Estuaries of Sine-Saloum
- Lake Guiers (280 km2) and retention basins .
STRATEGIC POSITIONING OF SENEGAL
In addition to the advantages conferred on it by its geographical position , by its openness to the international and interregional space , Senegal is full of enormous potentialities in the field of valorization and marketing of fish products. To this must be added a large demand for processed products meeting the standards in the European , American and even Asian markets . With regard to aquaculture production, with the scarcity of fish products in several West African countries, its development is based on several parameters , notably:
- a drastic drop in fish catches favoring the introduction of species such as Nile Tilapia, abalone or catfish in Senegal ;
- of temperatures favorable water in Senegal for example, tilapia to reach marketable size faster than in other producing countries, with the possibility of two crops per year;
- the conditions of rearing and breeding in Senegal that could make the production of Nile tilapia very competitive ;
- the potential aquaculture production of tilapia in St. Louis (in the valleys flooded in particular) and the Petite Côte , in a system of farming intensive closed-circuit;
- of potential aquaculture production of shrimp tiger in regions Sine Saloum and Casamance or in semi-intensive or intensive fashion.